On one of my earlier articles about Python dictionaries Jay asks (I paraphrase): What if you want to add items to a dictionary whilst iterating? And what if you want those items to appear in the iteration? Python’s standard dictionary iterators won’t help you.
Here’s a plan:
- keep a set, visited of keys that you have already visited;
- get the set of keys from the dictionary and subtract visited, leaving you with a set of keys not yet visited, todo;
- visit each of the keys in todo;
- now we have visited each of the keys in todo, add those keys to visited;
- during the iteration the set of keys in the dictionary may have changed, so repeat from (2), stopping when todo is empty.
def iterall(adict): """Iterate over all the items in a dictionary, including ones which are added during the iteration. """ visited = set() while True: todo = set(adict.keys()) - visited if not todo: break for k in todo: if k in adict: yield k, adict[k] visited |= todo
Here it is in use:
>>> d=dict(a=1,b=2) >>> for k,v in iterall(d): ... print k,v ... d['c'+k] = 'new' ... a 1 b 2 cb new ca new cc new
Python's set datatype makes this easy to program and it has reasonable performance.
Obligatory Python whinge: The function implemented above, iterall, is effectively a new method that I've implemented for the
dict class. But I can't add a new method to a class that someone else implemented. Unlike, say, Common Lisp, Dylan, Smalltalk, and Objective-C, where I can.